On January 1, 1840, Congress passed a law permitting the president to issue colonization contracts to individuals or groups who would introduce a specified number of families within three years. In his annual message on December 2, he urged Congress to approve annexation by a joint resolution, which Congress passed on February 28, 1845, and Tyler signed on March 1. However, the Congress had overlooked an 1839 act that authorized the president to seek a loan of $1 million, and in June 1842, when he was considering a campaign against Mexico, Houston arranged to borrow that amount from Alexandre Bourgeois d'Orvanne of New Orleans. A number of families came in, but controversy and lawsuits plagued both the contractor and the settlers from the beginning and into the 1930s. The San Jacinto, mapping the Texas coast, was wrecked the same month. This design led Congress on December 10 to decree that the seal would be circular with a single star and the words "Republic of Texas" encircling it. Financing proved critical, and efforts to secure loans from foreign countries were unsuccessful. On February 9, 1842, William Kennedy, an Englishman, with William Pringle, the Frenchman Henri Castro, and others each received permission to settle 600 or more immigrants between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. In his annual message to Congress on December 21, 1836, Jackson cited Morfit's report and stated that the United States traditionally had accorded recognition only when a new community could maintain its independence. 0. Texas also sold land scrip in the United States for fifty cents an acre. Marshall University, a coeducational institution, received its charter in 1842. France, Great Britain, and the United States were clamoring for the payment of claims of their citizens against Mexico. It stipulated that the site be between the Trinity and Colorado rivers and north of the Old San Antonio Road and recommended that the capital be named Austin. Texas Rangers intercepted Flores's party near Onion Creek, killed the emissary, and dispersed his men. The bank became the first political issue in the Houston administration. Dr. Richard F. Brenham, William G. Cooke, and José Antonio Navarro traveled along as commissioners to treat with the inhabitants of New Mexico. If they chose independence they had to draft a constitution for a new nation, establish a strong provisional government, and prepare to combat the Mexican armies invading Texas. Houston was vitally concerned with the location of the capital. Communications were poor, roads were few, and there was no regular mail system. The delegates then quickly abandoned Washington-on-the-Brazos. After trial by a court-martial, he was restored to command. Jackson signed the resolution and appointed Alcée Louis La Branche of Louisiana to be chargé d'affaires to the Republic of Texas. When President John Tyler reopened negotiations on annexation, Mexico became friendly to Texas. In June 1844 the United States Senate voted thirty-five to sixteen to reject the treaty. This "Lone Star Flag" remained the state flag after annexation. In the fall of 1841 Houston and Burnet were candidates for president. At the same time she threatened war with the United States if annexation were approved. Stephen Austin expected a friendly hearing about these grievances but instead was imprisoned in Mexico City for encouraging insurrection. In October he moved the government offices to Washington-on-the-Brazos. Houston replaced Hunt with Anson Jones, a member of the Texas Congress. He then dispatched Andrew Jackson Donelson, a nephew of Andrew Jackson, to Texas with instructions to press for its acceptance. To establish a station halfway to the Fisher-Miller grant, he bought the so-called Comal Tract and founded the town of New Braunfels. The Mexicans marched the prisoners to Mexico City and held them until the following April. The notes began circulating on November 1. Lamar campaigned vigorously, promised to remedy the mistakes of the Houston administration, and won by a vote of 6,995 to 252 over Senator Robert Wilson, who represented Liberty and Harrisburg (later Harris) counties. The first navy included the 60-ton Liberty, the 125-ton Independence, the 125-ton Brutus, and the 125-ton Invincible. At each site, three leagues of land was to be surveyed into 160-acre tracts, and each soldier who fulfilled his enlistment would receive a tract. The treasury was empty, the new nation's credit was in low repute, money was scarce. Near the site of present-day Colorado City, his force surprised and killed more than 130 Indians. On May 14 at Velasco, Texas officials had Santa Anna sign two treaties, one public and one secret. In early March of 1839, with fifty-three Mexicans, a few American Indians, and six Blacks, Córdova sought to travel from the upper Trinity along the frontier to Matamoros. He saw no value in a tie with the United States, and predicted that Texas could someday become a great nation extending to the Pacific. He had control of all troops in the field-militia, volunteers, and regular army enlistees. Congress repealed the $5 million loan authorization voted earlier, as Texas had been unable to obtain money in the United States or Europe, and even reduced the pay of its own members. On election day, September 5, Houston received 5,119 votes, Smith 743, and Austin 587. An additional two companies were to protect San Patricio, Goliad, and Refugio counties. A year later, Congress discussed a bill to allow the Franco-Texian Commercial and Colonization Company (also called the Franco-Texienne Company) to bring in 8,000 families and build twenty forts from the Red River to the Rio Grande. A month earlier, on September 18, Texas had concluded a treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation with the Netherlands. At the same time Huston came to Houston and raised a clamor for a campaign against Mexico. Great Britain and France became concerned. In late December, at the president's orders, Col. Thomas W. Ward, commissioner of the General Land Office, loaded the archives into wagons and sought to remove them to the new seat of government. When the Sixth Congress assembled in Austin on November 1, 1841, the Rio Grande frontier was the scene of constant attacks by Texas renegades and Mexican outlaws and the nation was heavily in debt. When Johnston reached Camp Independence, near Texana, on February 4, 1837, Huston challenged him to a duel and severely wounded him. From his camp about forty miles below where the Santa Fe Trail crossed the Arkansas River, Snively captured a New Mexican patrol guarding the trail. In the fall of 1840, Lord Aberdeen announced that Her Majesty's government would recognize Texas independence, and on November 13–16, three treaties were signed that dealt with independence, commerce and navigation, and suppression of the African slave trade. The United States Navy refused to accept the Texas naval officers and canceled their commissions. Tyler viewed Polk's election as a mandate for immediate annexation. Sixty of these irresponsible persons, early in January, 1861, called a State convention, to meet at Austin on the 28th of that month; and a single member of the legislature issued a call for the … It declared the Rio Grande to be the southern boundary, even though Mexico had refused to recognize Texas independence. During his second administration, Houston continued the settlement program. The defenders, learning that the soldiers were Mexican regulars, surrendered. Section 107 related to Copyright and “Fair Use” for Non-Profit educational institutions, which permits the Texas State Historical Association (TSHA), to utilize copyrighted materials to further scholarship, education, and inform the public. Under his proposals Texas would become an independent department (state) in the Mexican federation, be represented in the Mexican Congress, and be allowed to make its own laws. Because old settlers and veterans were not required to live upon the land to obtain title, they frequently sold their certificates to others who located land outside the settlements. The number of seats in the Senate would be "not less than one-third nor more than one-half that of the House." A large group, 309 men, broke off from the expedition and refused to return home. Also Rusk lacked two months meeting the constitutional age requirement. On the eighteenth Woll moved to Salado Creek, assaulted the Texans assembled on the creek east of San Antonio under Col. Mathew Caldwell, then withdrew to San Antonio. Soldiers also forced the Shawnees, Alabamas, and Coushattas to abandon their hunting grounds; the last two tribes were given lands in East Texas. They wanted the United States to join their efforts to end Texas-Mexican hostilities. Despite the cheap selling price, land acquisition could be costly, since applicants had to pay for locating, surveying, and obtaining title, services that amounted to about one-third the value of the land. They elected few demagogues to office and were remarkably fortunate in their choice of leaders. REPUBLIC OF TEXAS. Senators were to serve three-year overlapping terms, with one-third elected each year. Military commanders knew that there were restless groups around Nacogdoches and among various Indian tribes, and sent agents to East Texas to promote dissension. Its purpose is to collect and preserve the material culture of the Texas Republic (1836-1846) and to interpret the history, cultures, diversity, and values of early Texans. The treasury issued $2,780,361 in red-backs, valued at 37½ cents on the dollar in specie; these were worthless within three years. Postal rates were 6¼ cents for the first twenty miles, and rose to 12½ cents for up to fifty miles. Grants were given for postrevolution military service varying from 320 acres for three months' duty to 1,240 acres for twelve months'. When Bee reached Veracruz, the French had withdrawn and the Centralists were strengthening their position. They organized under Col. William S. Fisher and marched down the east side of the Rio Grande, crossed the river opposite Mier, and demanded food and clothing from the inhabitants of Mier. During the session of Congress called to discuss the Vásquez invasion, Houston brought up the moving of the capital, but had no success. Houston knew that such a campaign could not be sustained, but decided to let the agitators see for themselves. Lamar favored continuing the tariff, but hoped some day to see Texas ports free and open. In October 1840 the Texas Congress, lulled by an unofficial armistice, cut navy appropriations and tied up the fleet. Huston retained command, but later relinquished his position to Johnston. David J. Weber, The Mexican Frontier, 1821–1846 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1982). On September 6 Houston easily won a second term, and Burleson beat Hunt for vice president. The ceremonies concluded with the inaugural address of the newly elected governor, J. Pinckney Henderson. American colonization gained impetus when the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France in 1803 and claimed title to lands as far west as the Rio Grande. In May, Manuel Flores, a Mexican agent, left Matamoros to contact Córdova, unaware of his flight. The disputed area is in light green, while the Republic is in dark green. If the enemy invaded, he reasoned, Texans would rush to defend their homes. by esharp. The rates applied to one-page letters folded over and addressed on the front. Nacogdoches University, probably the first nonsectarian institution of higher learning in Texas, chartered on February 3, 1845, had an endowment of 29,712 acres of land and $2,699 in personal property. Lamar also wanted to end Comanche depredations on the frontier. Houston hoped, by keeping military units out of the Indian country and seeking treaties with various tribes, to avoid difficulties with the Indians. The commission recommended Bastrop (first choice), Washington-on-the Brazos, San Felipe, and Gonzales. Vicente Córdova, a prominent citizen, organized a Mexican-Indian combination and disclaimed allegiance to Texas. He estimated the population at 30,000 Anglo-Americans, 3,478 Tejanos, 14,200 American Indians, of which 8,000 belonged to civilized tribes that had migrated from the United States, and a slave population of 5,000, plus a few free Blacks. It consisted of fourteen senators and twenty-nine representatives. Houston was pictured as representing eastern Texas (except Nacogdoches County, where the Cherokee land question made Burnet the favorite), while Burnet was the champion of the western counties. Tom Henderson Wells, Commodore Moore and the Texas Navy (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1960). The eastern border with Louisiana presented problems. France, being at war with Mexico, signed a treaty on September 25, 1839, recognizing Texas independence. On the back are listings of significant dates and a selected bibliography for more information. In March 1839 the government converted the S.S. Charleston, a steam side-wheeler, into a man-of-war, rechristened it the Zavala, and sent it on a cruise to Yucatán. ... Why were so many people coming to Texas during the years of the republic? He wanted the municipal code reformed to coordinate Mexican and United States law in the republic. Land sales, however, ran into problems. The 1st Congress of the Republic of Texas convened in October 1836 at Columbia (now West Columbia). To encourage settlement, Congress also offered immigrants arriving between March 2, 1836, and October 1, 1837, a grant of 1,280 acres for heads of families and 640 acres for single men. Among the Knights were many members of the legislature, and active politicians all over the State. Thomas Jefferson Green and Felix Huston, who had brought volunteers from Mississippi, stirred up the soldiers against Lamar, and Rusk resumed command. He named Stephen F. Austin to be secretary of state; Henry Smith, secretary of the treasury; Thomas J. Rusk and Samuel Rhoads Fisher secretary of war and secretary of the navy, respectively; and James Pinckney Henderson, attorney general. The work stalled when the commissioners could not agree on whether Sabine Lake was the "Sabine river" named in the treaty. Pakenham informed Houston that Santa Anna would release the Mier prisoners if the Texas president would release all Mexican prisoners. After crossing the vast plains of West Texas under great hardship, on September 17 the expedition reached the village of Anton Chico, east of Santa Fe. The population was small, Texas independence was far from secure, the government had a heavy debt, and there was a vast tract of contested vacant land between the settlements and the Rio Grande.

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