In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. At the end the Convention voted the death sentence, 387 to 334. Journalists such as Jean-Paul Marat pointed to the prisons bursting with vagrants and criminals as well as refractory clergy and royalists and asked what would happen if traitors forced open the jails and released these hordes of fanatics and brigands. Alison Patrick. After the old order was overthrown, France needed a new form of government and the First French Republic was formed in 1792. France has also been influential in government and civil affairs, giving the world important democratic ideals in the age of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution and inspiring the growth of reformist and even revolutionary movements for generations. French Republic. As enthusiastic contingents of volunteers left for the front, fear of counterrevolutionary plots gripped the capital. The next two weeks brought this period of extreme uncertainty to a close. The First Republic (1792-1804) Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. The republic itself was ended in 1799 when a young general declared his own military dictatorship. Standing directly opposite the German Empire was the French Republic, who were crucial in the defence of the Western Front, and so we now take the spotlight across the lines and present La Troisième République. The French First Republic (fr. First French Republic, 1792-1804 (National Convention, Directory, Consulate) Subcategories. ... Crecy - the first decisive battle of the Hundred Years' War; in 1346 the English under Edward III defeated the French under Philip of Valois. The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (French: Empire Français; Latin: Imperium Francicum), was the empire ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. The weeks between August 10 and the meeting of the Convention on September 21 were a time of extreme tension. The Men of the First French Republic. The Revolution and its wars had allowed Bonaparte to rise as a military and political genius. See more. Its first major task was to decide the fate of the ex-king. Hard evidence of Louis’s treason produced a unanimous guilty verdict, but the issue of punishment divided the deputies sharply. In a different vein, Robespierre among others concluded that popular demands for vengeance and terror had to be channeled into legal forms; to prevent such anarchy, the state itself must become the orderly instrument of the people’s punitive will. The Men of the First French Republic. The younger mountains and adjacent plains, Gaul and Germany at the end of the 5th century, The shrinking of the frontiers and peripheral areas, Austrasian hegemony and the rise of the Pippinids, The partitioning of the Carolingian empire, The development of institutions in the Carolingian age, The influence of the church on society and legislation, Economy, society, and culture in the Middle Ages (, Economy, society, and culture in the 14th and 15th centuries, The influence of Montesquieu and Rousseau, The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815, The restoration and constitutional monarchy, The Great Depression and political crises, Society and culture under the Third Republic, The euro-zone crisis and the Socialist resurgence. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First French Empire in 1804 under Napoleon. Political Alignments in the National Convention of 1792. Liberté, égalité, fraternité, ou la mort! French First Republic. First republic definition, the republic established in France in 1792 and replaced by the First Empire in 1804. In response, Parisians took the law into their own hands with an orgy of mass lynching. The value of the assignats depreciated by 40 percent during August alone. They decided to employ the goddess of Liberty, to represent their Republic. 1795–1799 Oligarchical directorial republic. The First French Empire, also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon I of France. Welcome Soldiers! Introduction From French revolution in 1789, France has had five different republican systems. De Gaulle, who was the first French president elected under the Fifth Republic in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation ("the spirit of the nation"). C National coats of arms of the French First Republic‎ (2 F) French Republic synonyms, French Republic pronunciation, French Republic translation, English dictionary definition of French Republic. Officials of the provisional government and the Paris Commune “drew a veil” over this appalling event as it ran its course, though soon political rivals were accusing each other of instigating the massacres. The First Republic lasted until the First French Empire in 1804 under Napoleon I. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Alison Patrick analyzes some of the well-established evidence concerning deputies of the French National Convention of 1792. That was Napoleon Bonaparte. These prison massacres were no momentary fit of frenzy but went on for four days. The First French Empireball was a historic stateball in Franceball and was a major European empire that managed to conquer virtually all of Europe at the height of its power. Originally published in 1972. This time is characterized by the fall of the monarchy, the making of the National Convention and the infamous Reign of Terror, the founding of the Directory and the Thermidorian Reaction, and finally, the making of the Consulate and Napoleon’s rise to power. He was crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804. This degree of planning reveals Louis’ political determination; unfortunately, it was for this determined plot that he was eventually captured and charged with high treason. June 9, 2008 by Marge Anderson. Edit The First French Empire is a former country in Europe, that exists 1804 to 1815, it is against Coalition during Napoleonic Wars. Once Napoleon had consolidated his grip on the reins of power of the new-born French Republic, he began to change the nature of the state from a nascent democracy of sorts, into an Empire with all the trappings of dynastic royalty. The Convention’s trial of Louis became an educational experience for the French people in which the institution of monarchy was to be completely desacralized. Republique Française) was founded on 22 September, 1792, by the newly established National Convention. The fifth and current republic was an outcome to the Algerian crisis in 1950’s. On their own initiative, citizens entered the prisons, set up “popular tribunals” to hold perfunctory trials, and summarily executed between 1,100 and 1,400 prisoners out of a total of 2,800, stabbing and hacking them to death with any instruments at hand. The French First Republic was founded after the National Convention of 1792 after a short-lived constitutional monarchy failed to serve the people well. As enthusiastic contingents of volunteers left for the front, fear of counterrevolutionary plots gripped the capital. France - France - The First French Republic: The insurrection of August 10, 1792, did not, of course, stop the Prussian advance on the capital. At the time, no one in authority dared try to stop the slaughter. After being kept under what was essentially "house arrest," King Louis XVI and his family made an escape attempt from the Tuileries Palace to Varennes in 1791. Flag. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}48°52′00″N 2°19′59″E / 48.86667°N 2.33306°E / 48.86667; 2.33306, From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_First_Republic&oldid=7256781, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The French republic is literally ringed with an alliance of enemies, known to historians as the First Coalition. French First Republicball was a historic stateball in Franceball and was a revolutionary republican régime of the French nation formed during the French Revolution as a successor to Kingdom of Franceball. The insurrection of August 10, 1792, did not, of course, stop the Prussian advance on the capital. (Liberty, equality, brotherhood, or death!) This page was last changed on 8 January 2021, at 22:00. The First French Empire often shown wearing a simplified version of Napoleon's soldiers: a black bicorn hat with a blue jacket with golden epaulettes, golden sleeves, a small golden chain with a white short trouser, and black boots. This ill-considered proposal left the impression that certain deputies were frantic to save the king’s life, and their Jacobin opponents were quick to raise vague accusations of treasonous intent against them. Read for Free on Project MUSE. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The French First Republic was formed on 22 September 1792, by the newly made National Convention. Hist… It was the main power of most of continental Europe during the early 19th century. Noun 1. The King attempted to flee France and raise an army to retake the country from the revolutionaries. Laws to deport the refractory clergy, to bar the émigrés forever upon pain of death, and to confiscate their property rounded out the Convention’s program for eliminating the Revolution’s most determined enemies. The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times. Napoleon became Emperor of the French on 18 May 1804. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The First Republic lasted until the First French Empire in 1804 under Napoleon I. The First Republic | The French Revolution. On September 21 the National Convention convened, ending the vacuum of authority that had followed the August 10 insurrection. Hot on the heels of last week’s first look at the German Empire is the next instalment of our developer blog series. The National Convention is made up of the Girondins, who support the bourgeoisie, the Montagnards, who favor a central regime, and the Marais who are positioned in between the two. Although France had already established a colonial empire overseas since the early 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the French Revolution. For the deputies to the National Convention, now regicides, there could be no turning back. This situation became an international point of focus, and some of the debates from … In 1804, concentrating power in his own hands, Napoleon crowned himself the Emperor of the French. In any event, the former king Louis XVI, now known simply as “Citizen Capet,” was executed on January 21, 1793, in an act of immense symbolic importance. On September 20 the French army turned back the invaders at the Battle of Valmy, and in November at the Battle of Jemappes it won control of the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium). République française. A motion for reprieve was defeated (380 to 310), and one to submit the verdict to a national referendum was rejected (425 to 286). In a painstaking and solemn debate each deputy cast his vote individually and explained it. Opinions vary as to who the 'first' French king was, and the following list includes all of the transitional monarchs, including the Carolingian and not French Louis I. The French Republic. Louis XVI of France was deposed and replaced by the National Convention, the parliament of the newly-declared French Republic. During the early 19th century, First French Empireball invaded its neighbors and annexed their clay into its clay expanding France's borders and creating various client states and vassals across Europe. But the new policy of conscription enables France to keep large armies in the field, facing in every hostile direction. The First French Republic and Regicide 22.5.2: The First French Republic and Regicide The execution of Louis XVI on January 21, 1793, radicalized the French Revolution at home and united European monarchies against revolutionary France. Since there was no longer a king, this new government needed a symbol to replace his image on their official seal. The French First Republic was formed on 22 September 1792, by the newly made National Convention. This category has the following 9 subcategories, out of 9 total. 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