However, many painters, such as Jules Olitski, Joan Mitchell and Antoni Tàpies continued to work in the abstract expressionist style for many years, extending and expanding its visual and philosophical implications, as many abstract artists continue to do today, in styles described as Lyrical Abstraction, Neo-expressionist and others. According to Rosenberg the canvas was "an arena in which to act". In addition, the artists David Hare, John Chamberlain, James Rosati, Mark di Suvero, and sculptors Richard Lippold, Raoul Hague, George Rickey, Reuben Nakian, and even Tony Smith, Seymour Lipton, Joseph Cornell, and several others[9] were integral parts of the abstract expressionist movement. In Gorky's most effective and accomplished paintings between the years 1941–1948, he consistently used intense stained fields of color, often letting the paint run and drip, under and around his familiar lexicon of organic and biomorphic shapes and delicate lines. Like other Abstract Expressionist painters, Rothko worked in large scale, which the artist claimed to increase the intimacy between his work and the viewer, as if larger equals closer, a perspective that grants the viewer greater access to the piece, making it … It also was one of the first stain pictures, one of the first large field pictures in which the stain technique was used, perhaps the first one. This extreme form of abstraction divided the critics: some praised the immediacy and fluency of the creation, while others derided the random effects. [58], Abstract Expressionists value the organism over the static whole, becoming over being, expression over perfection, vitality over finish, fluctuation over repose, feeling over formulation, the unknown over the known, the veiled over the clear, the individual over society and the inner over the outer. Young Lyrical Painters, Art in America, v.57, n6, November–December 1969, pp.104–113. With Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, he is one of the most famous postwar American artists.... Franz Kline (May 23, 1910 – May 13, 1962) was an American painter. The canvas as the arena became a credo of Action painting, while the integrity of the picture plane became a credo of the Color field painters. This led to the American art boom that brought about styles such as Pop Art. Abstract art is work that does not attempt to represent an accurate depiction of visual reality and instead utilises colours, forms, shapes and gestural marks to create this effect.Meanwhile, abstract expressionism is a term applied to newer forms of abstract art developed by American painters such as Pollock and Rothko after World War II. The Color Field painters sought to rid their art of superfluous rhetoric. Many of the sculptors listed participated in the Ninth Street Show,[9] a famous exhibition curated by Leo Castelli on East Ninth Street in New York City in 1951. [49] Frankenthaler also studied with Hans Hofmann. - Not a syn for all abstract art.-Never a coherent style, much style diversity -Seen as something to react against strongly List RulesVote up the best Abstract Expressionist artists. It is thanks to abstract expressionism that New York City has eventually become one of the most influential centers of the world's fine arts. Clem was the first to see their potential. Arshile Gorky (born Vostanik Manoug Adoian; 1904-1948) was an Armenian-American artist who had a significant impact on the development of abstract expressionism.He is closely associated with his friend Willem de Kooning and the New York School of painters. Abstract expressionism emerged as a major art movement in New York City during the 1950s and thereafter several leading art galleries began to include the abstract expressionists in exhibitions and as regulars in their rosters. He was well known for his drip paintings, and they were popular because of the unmatched creativity at the time. Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different, both technically and aesthetically, from the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning's figurative paintings and the rectangles of color in Rothko's Color Field paintings (which are not what would usually be called expressionist, and which Rothko denied were abstract). Both Hans Hofmann and Robert Motherwell can be comfortably described as practitioners of Action painting and Color field painting. American social realism had been the mainstream in the 1930s. Color field painting, Hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction[53] emerged as radical new directions. Emil Nolde was an expressionist painter and a part of the German Die Brücke (The Bridge) group of expressionist artists. There were also a few artists with a literary background, among them Robert Motherwell and Barnett Newman, who functioned as critics as well. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky.[2]. He was renowned not only as an artist but also as a teacher of art, both in his native Germany and later in the US. During the late 1940s, Jackson Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all Contemporary art that followed him. In the 1940s there were not only few galleries (The Art of This Century, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Julien Levy Gallery and a few others) but also few critics who were willing to follow the work of the New York Vanguard. It was somehow meant to encompass not only the work of painters who filled their canvases with fields of color and abstract forms, but also those who attacked their canvases with a vigorous gestural expressionism. It was also called ‘action painting’, since he used the force of his whole body to paint, often in a frenetic dancing style. Meyer Schapiro and Leo Steinberg along with Greenberg and Rosenberg were important art historians of the post-war era who voiced support for abstract expressionism. The radical Anti-Formalist movements of the 1960s and 1970s including Fluxus, Neo-Dada, Conceptual art, and the feminist art movement can be traced to the innovations of abstract expressionism. Aldrich, Larry. In … An example is his letter on April 9, 1955, "Letter to Sidney Janis: — it is true that Rothko talks the fighter. Greenberg perceived Color Field painting as related to but different from Action painting. "I paint from a distance. Motherwell is mentioned with a question mark. Abstract expressionism preceded Tachisme, Color Field painting, Lyrical Abstraction, Fluxus, Pop Art, Minimalism, Postminimalism, Neo-expressionism, and the other movements of the sixties and seventies and it influenced all those later movements that evolved. The term was coined by the American critic Harold Rosenberg in 1952[34] and signaled a major shift in the aesthetic perspective of New York School painters and critics. Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. Shapiro, David/Cecile (2000), "Abstract Expressionism: The politics of apolitical painting." Greenberg proclaimed abstract expressionism and Pollock in particular as the epitome of aesthetic value. Vote up the best Abstract Expressionist artists. She is one of the originators of the Color Field movement that emerged in the late 1950s. The gesture on the canvas was a gesture of liberation from value—political, aesthetic, moral."[16]. De Zegher, Catherine, and Teicher, Hendel (eds.). Jackson Pollock. To Greenberg, it was the physicality of the paintings' clotted and oil-caked surfaces that was the key to understanding them as documents of the artists' existential struggle. Post-war Europe saw the continuation of Surrealism, Cubism, Dada, and the works of Matisse. "The big moment came when it was decided to paint 'just to paint'. During the period leading up to and during World War II, modernist artists, writers, and poets, as well as important collectors and dealers, fled Europe and the onslaught of the Nazis for safe haven in the United States. Abstract Expressionism evolved through the work of each individual artist. (previous page) () By the 1960s, the movement's initial affect had been assimilated, yet its methods and proponents remained highly influential in art, affecting profoundly the work of many artists who followed. Since the mid-1970s it has been argued that the style attracted the attention, in the early 1950s, of the CIA, who saw it as representative of the US as a haven of free thought and free markets, as well as a challenge to both the socialist realist styles prevalent in communist nations and the dominance of the European art markets. Tom Braden, founding chief of the CIA's International Organizations Division (IOD) and ex-executive secretary of the Museum of Modern Art said in an interview, "I think it was the most important division that the agency had, and I think that it played an enormous role in the Cold War."[56]. A painter and theorist, Kandinsky is a household name and cannot be forgoed in the world of abstract expressionism. Among Hofmann's protégés was Clement Greenberg, who became an enormously influential voice for American painting, and among his students was Lee Krasner, who introduced her teacher, Hofmann, to her husband, Jackson Pollock. During 1951 he produced a series of semi-figurative black stain paintings, and in 1952 he produced stain paintings using color. He is associated with the Abstract Expressionist movement of the 1940s and 1950s. Among the artists and collectors who arrived in New York during the war (some with help from Varian Fry) were Hans Namuth, Yves Tanguy, Kay Sage, Max Ernst, Jimmy Ernst, Peggy Guggenheim, Leo Castelli, Marcel Duchamp, André Masson, Roberto Matta, André Bre… In 1972 then Metropolitan Museum of Art curator Henry Geldzahler said: Clement Greenberg included the work of both Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland in a show that he did at the Kootz Gallery in the early 1950s. Not all of their art was abstract or expressive, but they felt that through spontaneity they would release the creativity of their subconscious minds. The other abstract expressionists followed Pollock's breakthrough with new breakthroughs of their own. Hedda Sterne was the only woman who signed, and Vallejo and Manuel Fontán del Junco report that she considered being remembered as the sole female painter involved to … Greenberg became the voice of Post-painterly abstraction; by curating an influential exhibition of new painting that toured important art museums throughout the United States in 1964. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event. The 1940s in New York City heralded the triumph of American abstract expressionism, a modernist movement that combined lessons learned from Matisse, Picasso, Surrealism, Miró, Cubism, Fauvism, and early Modernism via great teachers in America such as Hans Hofmann from Germany and John D. Graham from Ukraine. These notable abstract expressionism period artists are organized by popularity, so the best artists are at the top of the list. 189–190 In: Frascina, Francis (2000–1): Catherine de Zegher and Hendel Teicher (eds.). Paalen is mentioned twice; other artists mentioned are Gottlieb, Rothko, Pollock, Hofmann, Baziotes, Gorky and others. California abstract expressionist Jay Meuser, who typically painted in the non-objective style, wrote about his painting Mare Nostrum, "It is far better to capture the glorious spirit of the sea than to paint all of its tiny ripples." [15], Pollock's work has always polarised critics. Blog Home Abstract Expressionist Artists You Need to Know. Her most famous painting from that period is Mountains and Sea. During the final three decades of his career, Sam Francis' style of large-scale bright abstract expressionism was closely associated with Color field painting. How does the artist’s “moment of creation” make an abstract expressionist painting “art”? Against this revisionist tradition, an essay by Michael Kimmelman, chief art critic of The New York Times, called Revisiting the Revisionists: The Modern, Its Critics and the Cold War, argues that much of that information concerning what was happening on the American art scene during the 1940s and 50s, as well as the revisionists' interpretation of it, is flatly false or, at best, decontextualized, contrary to the revisionists' avowed historiographic principles. Canadian painter Jean-Paul Riopelle (1923–2002), a member of the Montreal-based surrealist-inspired group Les Automatistes, helped introduce a related style of abstract impressionism to the Parisian art world from 1949. Yet all four artists are classified as abstract expressionists. One: Number 31, 1950 is a painting produced by Jackson Pollock in 1950. James Brooks' paintings were particularly poetic and highly prescient in relationship to Lyrical Abstraction that became prominent in the late 1960s and the 1970s.[46]. [42][43] Robert Motherwell in his Elegy to the Spanish Republic series painted powerful black and white paintings using gesture, surface and symbol evoking powerful emotional charges. : CIA and the Cultural Cold War) details how the CIA financed and organized the promotion of American abstract expressionists as part of cultural imperialism via the Congress for Cultural Freedom from 1950 to 1967. Meanwhile, as a reaction against the subjectivism of abstract expressionism, other forms of Geometric abstraction began to appear in artist studios and in radical avant-garde circles. All the greatest artists associated with the abstract expressionism movement are included here, along with clickable names for more details on that particular painter or sculptor. List of famous abstract expressionism artists, with images, bios, and information about their notable works. Gorky's contributions to American and world art are difficult to overestimate. The newer research tends to put the exile-surrealist Wolfgang Paalen in the position of the artist and theoretician who fostered the theory of the viewer-dependent possibility space through his paintings and his magazine DYN. The movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus, and Synthetic Cubism. Artists like Motherwell, Still, Rothko, Gottlieb, Hans Hofmann, Helen Frankenthaler, Sam Francis, Mark Tobey, and especially Ad Reinhardt and Barnett Newman, whose masterpiece Vir heroicus sublimis is in the collection of MoMA, used greatly reduced references to nature, and they painted with a highly articulated and psychological use of color. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists' works, most of these paintings involved careful planning, especially since their large size demanded it. Soon after his first exhibition, Barnett Newman remarked in one of the Artists' Sessions at Studio 35: "We are in the process of making the world, to a certain extent, in our own image. Having seen Pollock's 1951 paintings of thinned black oil paint stained into raw canvas, Frankenthaler began to produce stain paintings in varied oil colors on raw canvas in 1952. [1] It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. "Abstract Expressionism" was never an ideal label for the movement, which developed in New York in the 1940s and 1950s. Brooks began diluting his oil paint in order to have fluid colors with which to pour and drip and stain into the mostly raw canvas that he used. Or if the art was political, the message was largely for the insiders.[7]. Generally speaking, each artist arrived at this free-wheeling style by the end of the 1940s and continued in the same manner to the end of his or her life. - An art movement that dominate America in the 40s and 50s. Brooks regularly used stain as a technique in his paintings from the late 1940s. [47] Certain artists quoted references to past or present art, but in general color field painting presents abstraction as an end in itself. It was the first specifically American group of Artists to achieve worldwide influence and also the one that put New York City at the center of the art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. The art historian Meyer Schapiro saw the painting in de Kooning's studio soon afterwards and encouraged the artist to persist. [25] American artists also benefited from the presence of Piet Mondrian, Fernand Léger, Max Ernst, and the André Breton group, Pierre Matisse's gallery, and Peggy Guggenheim's gallery The Art of This Century, as well as other factors. [6], Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. Pages in category "Abstract expressionist artists" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 293 total. [12], Barnett Newman, a late member of the Uptown Group, wrote catalogue forewords and reviews, and by the late 1940s became an exhibiting artist at Betty Parsons Gallery. In Paris, formerly the center of European culture and capital of the art world, the climate for art was a disaster, and New York replaced Paris as the new center of the art world. [8] David Smith, and his wife Dorothy Dehner, Herbert Ferber, Isamu Noguchi, Ibram Lassaw, Theodore Roszak, Phillip Pavia, Mary Callery, Richard Stankiewicz, Louise Bourgeois, and Louise Nevelson in particular were some of the sculptors considered as being important members of the movement. To some extent, Pollock realized that the journey toward making a work of art was as important as the work of art itself. The well-heeled artist Robert Motherwell joined Greenberg in promoting a style that fit the political climate and the intellectual rebelliousness of the era. Hans Hofmann in particular as teacher, mentor, and artist was both important and influential to the development and success of abstract expressionism in the United States. : [Exhibition] December 2, 1953 to February 21, 1954", "Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective at Tate Modern, review", "L.A. Art Collector Caps Two Year Pursuit of Artist with Exhibition of New Work", "Art scene by Bill Van Siclen: Part-time faculty with full-time talent", "International Paintings and Sculpture – Woman V", "Painting at the Speed of Sight: Franz Kline's Rapid Transit", "Art History Definition: Action Painting", "Abstract Expressionism: Redefining Art, Part One | Art History Unstuffed", Metropolitan Museum of Art Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Abstract Expressionism, "Robert Motherwell. In a typical Abstract Expressionist composition, there is not one focal point. Therefore, the standard to evaluate an abstract work is not on the painter’s side, but depends on the characteristics of the final … -Shift the focus to America. My struggle against bourgeois society has involved the total rejection of it."[14]. However Color Field painting has proven to be both sensual and deeply expressive albeit in a different way from gestural abstract expressionism. Vasily Kandinsky (1866–1944) Though Vasily Kandinsky pursued figurative art before 1913, he was … In abstract painting during the 1950s and 1960s, several new directions, like the Hard-edge painting exemplified by John McLaughlin, emerged. In distinction to the emotional energy and gestural surface marks of abstract expressionists such as Pollock and de Kooning, the Color Field painters initially appeared to be cool and austere, effacing the individual mark in favor of large, flat areas of color, which these artists considered to be the essential nature of visual abstraction, along with the actual shape of the canvas, which later in the 1960s Frank Stella in particular achieved in unusual ways with combinations of curved and straight edges. Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Adolph Gottlieb and the serenely shimmering blocks of color in Mark Rothko's work (which is not what would usually be called expressionist and which Rothko denied was abstract), are classified as abstract expressionists, albeit from what Clement Greenberg termed the Color field direction of abstract expressionism. Another abstract expressionist whose works in the 1940s call to mind the stain paintings of the 1960s and the 1970s is James Brooks. [44][45], Meanwhile, other action painters, notably de Kooning, Gorky, Norman Bluhm, Joan Mitchell, and James Brooks, used imagery via either abstract landscape or as expressionistic visions of the figure to articulate their highly personal and powerful evocations. [3] Around 1944 Barnett Newman tried to explain America's newest art movement and included a list of "the men in the new movement." Rereadings into abstract art, done by art historians such as Linda Nochlin,[27] Griselda Pollock[28] and Catherine de Zegher[29] critically shows, however, that pioneer women artists who have produced major innovations in modern art had been ignored by the official accounts of its history, but finally began to achieve long overdue recognition in the wake of the abstract expressionist movement of the 1940s and 1950s. In the 1940s Richard Pousette-Dart's tightly constructed imagery often depended upon themes of mythology and mysticism; as did the paintings of Gottlieb, and Pollock in that decade as well. Graham's influence on American art during the early 1940s was particularly visible in the work of Gorky, de Kooning, Pollock, and Richard Pousette-Dart among others. And quality of expression H. Geldzahler American cultural innovations, along with Greenberg and Rosenberg were important art historians the... 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