Here is a brief timeline of important events that have shaped Italy and its people; the focus here will be geared towards recent events (from 100 years ago or so), located towards the bottom, but we’ll begin with more ancient events first. The wool and silk industries of Lombardy collapsed when their looms were wrecked by invaders. The Renaissance was so called because it was a "rebirth" not only of economy and urbanization, but also of arts and science. History of the United Provinces. [64] The recovery from the demographic and economic disaster led to a resurgence of cities, trade and economy which greatly stimulated the successive phase of the Humanism and Renaissance (15th–16th centuries) when Italy again returned to be the center of Western civilization, strongly influencing the other European countries with Courts like Este in Ferrara and De Medici in Florence. 1936 – Mussolini Creates Rome-Berlin Axis with Nazi Germany. [153] However, after only fourteen months the League withdrew its support to Conte, who formed a new unprecedented government coalition between the Five Star Movement and the centre-left. About the same time in the 8th century BCE, a small agricultural community was forming on the west coast of Italy. In exchange Prussia would allow Italy to annex Austrian-controlled Venice. The 1840 version of I Promessi Sposi used a standardized version of the Tuscan dialect, a conscious effort by the author to provide a language and force people to learn it. [137] During the Second Battle of El Alamein the 7th Bersaglieri Regiment exhibited a strong regimental spirit in the fight for Hill 28 that impressed Rommel to comment positively. The fervor for war represented a bitterly hostile reaction against politics as usual, and the failures, frustrations, and stupidities of the ruling class.[106][107]. In the 1980s, for the first time, two governments were managed by a republican (Giovanni Spadolini 1981–82) and a socialist (Bettino Craxi 1983–87) rather than by a Christian-democrat.[148][149]. Renaissance politics developed from this background. "[136] Writing about the fighting at the First Battle of El Alamein, he stated: "The Italians were willing, unselfish and good comrades in the frontline. The one major obstacle to Italian unity remained Rome. The county of Savoy expanded its territory into the peninsula in the late Middle Ages, while Florence developed into a highly organized commercial and financial city-state, becoming for many centuries the European capital of silk, wool, banking and jewelry. Mussolini sought to ensure that Nazi Germany would not become hegemonic in Europe. The Neapolitan Republic was formed around Naples, but it lasted only five months before the enemy forces of the Coalition recaptured it. History of the Arabians and Saracens. The circumstances of its destruction preserved Pompeii’s remains as a unique document of Greco-Roman life. The south, at the same time, was overpopulated, forcing millions of people to search for a better life abroad. [81] Defeated at Paris on 6 April 1814, Napoleon was compelled to renounce his throne and sent into exile on Elba. In the 1st and 2nd century, Roman legions were also employed in intermittent warfare with the Germanic tribes to the north and the Parthian Empire to the east. [135] Winston Churchill said in a speech to the House of Commons a month after El Alamein: We must honour the men that were the Lions of the Folgore. In 105 BCE, the Celtiberians still retained enough of their native vigour and ferocity to drive the Cimbri and Teutones from northern Spain,[34] though these had crushed Roman arms in southern Gaul, inflicting 80,000 casualties on the Roman army which opposed them. Interactive World History Atlas since 3000 BC Follow us World History Maps & Timelines. Some of them have been discovered in Etruscan tombs, suggesting a strong relationship between the two peoples. [156] From March to May, Conte's government imposed a national quarantine as a measure to limit the spread of the pandemic. The reach of the British Empire and its navy spread cholera to Spain, Africa, Indonesia, China, Japan, Italy, Germany and America, where it killed 150,000 people. Italy joined the Marshall Plan (ERP) and NATO. They included settlements in Sicily and the southern part of the Italian peninsula. Founded around 600 B.C. In 2001, the centre-right formed the government and Silvio Berlusconi was able to regain power and keep it for a complete five-year mandate, becoming the longest government in post-war Italy. Denis Mack Smith's classic Italy: a Modern History (University of Michigan Press Ann Arbor, new edn, 1968), recently revised and updated and re-issued as Modern Italy: a Political History (Yale University Press: New Haven and London, 1997) remains a standard work in Italy and the UK and is still to be found on numerous Italian bookshelves. As traditionally the oldest form of Christianity, along with the ancient or first millennial Eastern Orthodox Church, the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Churches, and the Church of the East, the history of the Catholic Church is integral to the history of Christianity as a whole. The Papacy regained its authority, and undertook a long struggle against the Holy Roman Empire. (In addition, the Nationalist Spanish Navy sank 48 Republican and 44 foreign merchant ships, for a total of 240,000 tons, and captured 202 Republican and 23 foreign merchant ships, for a total of 330,000 tons.)[122]. The same is true for architecture, as practiced by Brunelleschi, Leone Alberti, Andrea Palladio, and Bramante. In the beginning of the 15th century, adventurers and traders such as Niccolò Da Conti (1395–1469) traveled as far as Southeast Asia and back, bringing fresh knowledge on the state of the world, presaging further European voyages of exploration in the years to come. New Tablet of Memory; or, Chronicle of Remarkable Events. In World War I, Italy joined the Entente with France and Britain, despite having been a member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and gave a fundamental contribution to the victory of the conflict as one of the principal allied powers. The Black Death in 1348 inflicted a terrible blow to Italy, killing perhaps one third of the population. 1946 – Italian Republic is Formed on 10 June. He decided to include Fascists on his electoral list for 1921 elections. Ever since it had been badly defeated in Ethiopia in 1896, there was a strong demand for seizing that country. Mussolini and Adolf Hitler first met in June 1934, as the issue of Austrian independence was in crisis. In 751 the Lombards seized Ravenna, ending Eastern Roman rule in central Italy. However Stalinism was a powerful political force. In 476, the last Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by Odoacer; for a few years Italy stayed united under the rule of Odoacer, but soon after it was divided between several barbarian kingdoms, and did not reunite under a single ruler until thirteen centuries later. 4.4 out of 5 stars 22. [152] However, after a failed constitutional referendum, Italy entered a period of political instability culminating in a general election that resulted in a hung parliament and the subsequent formation of the first populist government in Western Europe. Other articles where History of Italy is discussed: Italy: Italy in the early Middle Ages: The Roman Empire was an international political system in which Italy was only a part, though an important part. The Renaissance ideals first spread from Florence to the neighbouring states of Tuscany such as Siena and Lucca. The Concordat of 1929 made Catholicism the sole religion of the state (although other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to priests and bishops, recognized church marriages (previously couples had to have a civil ceremony), and brought religious instruction into the public schools. The turn of the millennium brought about a period of renewed autonomy in Italian history. [16] The researchers conclude that their data, taken from the modern Tuscan population, 'support the scenario of a post-Neolithic genetic input from the Near East to the present-day population of Tuscany'. Christopher Duggan, using private diaries and letters, and secret police files, argues that Mussolini enjoyed a strong, wide base of popular support among ordinary people across Italy. ", Antonio Carlo, "Against the 'Southern Question'" (1974), Luigi Tomassini, "Industrial Mobilization and the labour market in Italy during the First World War,", The Fascist Experience by Edward R. Tannenbaum, p. 22, James J. Sadkovich, "Understanding Defeat: Reappraising Italy's Role in World War II,", Jon E. Lewis (1999), The Mammoth Book of True War Stories, p. 318, Francesca Fauri, "The Role of Fiat in the Development of the Italian Car Industry in the 1950s". Appleton, 1892 - Chronology, Historical - 200 pages. The mercenaries were not willing to risk their lives unduly, and war became one largely of sieges and maneuvering, occasioning few pitched battles. A new constitution was approved, setting up a parliamentary democracy. Italy had about 115,000 cases, and Spain had reported 110,000. Milan, Florence and Venice, as well as several other Italian city-states, played a crucial innovative role in financial development, devising the main instruments and practices of banking and the emergence of new forms of social and economic organization.[57]. They set up colonies along the coast of southern Italy and on the island of Sicily. As no dominant powers emerged as they did in other parts of Europe, the oligarchic city-state became the prevalent form of government. As a result of the Treaty of The Hague, Spain agreed to abandon its Italian claims, while Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy agreed to exchange Sicily with Austria, for the island of Sardinia, after which he was known as the King of Sardinia. Leonzio Pilato made an almost word for word translation of Homer's works into Latin for Giovanni Boccaccio. [2] Italy is said to have more masterpieces per square mile than any other country in the world. The needs of a modernizing economy demanded new transport and energy infrastructures. Odoacer's rule came to an end when the Ostrogoths, under the leadership of Theodoric, conquered Italy. Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in 1797–99. As Tangentopoli was under a set of judicial investigations by the name of Mani pulite (Italian for "clean hands"), voters demanded political, economic, and ethical reforms. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Also during this period, Greek colonies were established in places as widely separated as the eastern coast of the Black Sea, Eastern Libya and Massalia (Marseille) in Gaul. Mark Antony's affair with Cleopatra was seen as an act of treason, since she was queen of a foreign power and Antony was adopting an extravagant and Hellenistic lifestyle that was considered inappropriate for a Roman statesman.[40]. In June 1945 Bonomi was in turn replaced by Ferruccio Parri, who in turn gave way to Alcide de Gasperi on 4 December 1945. This has made it an important land throughout world history. Bosworth says of his foreign policy that Crispi: Crispi had been in the Depretis cabinet minister and was once a Garibaldi republican. [83] Following the defeat of Napoleonic France, the Congress of Vienna (1815) was convened to redraw the European continent. 1809 – Napoleon occupies Rome, exiles the Pope Pius VII, seizes the Papal art collections for the Louvre in Paris. The traditional chronology, as codified by Varro, allots 243 years for their reigns, an average of almost 35 years, which, since the work of Barthold Georg Niebuhr, has been generally discounted by modern scholarship. The assassination of the leader of the Christian Democracy (DC), Aldo Moro, led to the end of a "historic compromise" between the DC and the Communist Party (PCI). The insurrection reached its peak mainly in Basilicata and northern Apulia, headed by the brigands Carmine Crocco and Michele Caruso. [46], Despite its military strength, the Empire made few efforts to expand its already vast extent; the most notable being the conquest of Britain, begun by emperor Claudius (47), and emperor Trajan's conquest of Dacia (101–102, 105–106). Famous artists such as Michelangelo, Raphael, Donatello and Leonardo Da Vinci lived during the Renaissance. Crispi worked to build Italy as a great world power through increased military expenditures, advocation of expansionism, and trying to win Germany's favor even by joining the Triple Alliance which included both Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882 which remained officially intact until 1915. Most of the workers on the agricultural lands were not peasants but short-term labourers who at best were employed for one year. [76] Historians believe the dramatic reduction in Italian cities population (and, thus, in economic activity) contributed to Italy's downfall as a major commercial and political centre.